Abstracts of Selected Publications

Chervinskaya A.V., Silber N.A., Alexandrov A.N. Halotherapy for treatment of bronchial asthma (abstract) // XIV World congress of asthmology – Interasma 93, Israel. – 1993. – P. 59.
Halotherapy (HT) is a method of treatment under conditions of artificial salt cave microclimate. Therapeutic effect is stipulated by air-dispersed medium saturated with dry sodium chloride aerosol containing the dominating amount of 2 to 5 micron particles. Particle density (1-5 mg/m3) varies depending on the type and stage of the disease. The other factors – comfortable humidified temperature regime, the hypo bacterial and allergen free environment saturated with air-ions enhance the therapeutic effect. Seventy-one patients (25M, 46F, average 39.1±2.4 years) with various types of asthma were treated by HT. The drug treatment of 60% patients did not give full effect. A control group of 15 patients (8M, 7F, average 38.4±1.5 years) received placebo. The HT course comprised of 10-20 daily one hour procedures. Treatment was conducted in a special room. No side effects were observed during the course of HT. The clinical state of 85% patients with mild and moderate and 75% patients with severe asthma improved after HT. Forty seven percent of patients required fewer doses of drugs. The improvement in clinical state of patients was accompanied by positive dynamics in lung function tests. The changes in control group parameters after HT were not statistically significant. Thus, the results of HT application demonstrated its efficacy.

Konovalov S.I., Chervinskaya A.V. Saline aerosol effect on pulmonary phagocyte system (abstract) // International symposium of speleotherapy. Solotvino-Ukraine, 1993.-P. 24.
Halotherapy – the treatment under conditions of artificially created salt-cave microclimate. Therapeutic influence is stipulated by aero dispersed medium saturated with dry sodium chloride aerosol containing the dominating amount of 2 to 5 micron particles. Further development of the method is offered by the application of the controlled therapeutic microclimate in a halochamber. Particles density from 1 to 7 mg/m3 was used. On the basis of various parameters of aero disperse environments using, we have developed criteria of prescribing the treatment with due regard for nosological forms of respiratory diseases, their pathogen city variants, and the degree of obstructive impairment. Differential approach to the prescription of method allowed reducing the frequency and manifestations of undesirable bronchospastic reactions during treatment. The feasibility of using halotherapy to treat otorhinolaryngologic diseases was substantiated. At the same time, it has been established that further research is needed to verify the prescription of method for certain forms of respiratory diseases. Therefore, the application of controlled therapeutic microclimate of a halochamber improved the method of halotherapy and brought it nearer to the up-to-date medical technology.

Chervinskaya A., Alexandrov A., Zilber N., Stepanova N. Effect of halotherapy in patients with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis (abstract). XV International Congress of allergology and clinical immunology, Sweden, 1994. – P. 175.
Halotherapy (HT) – is mode of treatment in a controlled air medium which simulates a natural salt cave microclimate. The main curative factor is dry sodium chloride aerosol with particles of 2 to 5 mkm in size. Particles density (0.5-7 mg/m3) varies with the type of the disease. Other factors are comfortable temperature- humidity regime, the hypo bacterial and allergen- free air environment saturated with aero ions. 106 patients (pts) (59 – with allergic, 27 – with nonallergic bronchial asthma (BA) and 20 – with allergic rhinitis) were treated by HT. 15 pts of the control group were given placebo. HT course consisted of 10-20 daily procedures of 1 hour. The clinical state of 85% pts with BA and 90% – with allergic rhinitis improved after HT. The results of HT did not depend on BA type. The positive dynamics of flow-volume loop parameters and decrease of bronchial and nasal resistance measured by bodyplethysmography were observed. FVC and FEV1 initial values and the values of their changes during HT showed a significantly negative correlation – the more marked was bronchial obstruction, the better were the results of therapy. The changes in control group parameters after HT were not statistically significant. The results of HT application demonstrated its efficacy.

Chervinskaya A., Alexandrov A., Strashnova O. Effect of dry sodium chloride aerosol in patients with bronchial asthma // Allergy & Immunology (abstr. Interasma 95). – 1995. – V. 27, N. 7.- P. 221.
The effect of dry sodium chloride aerosol (DSCA) was evaluated in 125 patients (pts) with bronchial asthma (44 M,81 F, mean age 34.3+2.5 years). 60% of pts received a base medication without full effect. The control group of15 pts(8M,7F, mean age 38.4+1.5 years) received placebo. Treatment was performed in a special room with salt coated walls. The pts breathed quietly while reclining in chairs. DSCA containing the dominating amount of 2 to 5 mkm particles was produced by special nebulizer. The aerosol mass concentration (from 0.5 to 5 mg/m3) was prescribed according to the type of the disease. The DSCA course comprised 10-20 daily one hour procedures. Clinical symptoms analysis demonstrated that the number of asthma attacks decreased significantly. The cases with cough occurred more rarely, cough became easier and more productive. Reduction in bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroid consumption was an indicator of clinical benefit. The pts showed significant increase of FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF50 and decrease of Raw by the end of the treatment. The changes in control group parameters after placebo were not statistically significant. The pts were examined 6 and 12 months after the DSCA course. The average duration of remission was 7.6+0.9 months.

Chervinskaya A.V., Alexandrov A.N., Konovalov S.I. Application of dry rock salt aerosol in case of common cold // XYI Congress of the European Rhinologic Society. VII Congress of the International Rhinologic Society. Week of the Nose: Abstract Book.- 1996. – P. 104.
17 patients with common cold underwent dry rock salt aerosol (DRSA) therapy. DRSA with particles size of 1-5 mkm and high negative charge is the main curative factor of Halotherapy (HT). Density of aerosol depends on nosology, clinical features and FEV1 (0.5-1; 1-2; 3-5; 7-9 mg/m3). HT is drug-free method, which simulates natural salt cave microclimate. There were two ways of DRSA administration: in the room with the controlled air medium which is created with special equipment; the inhalation through nasal mask of individual inhalator. The method of HT was sanctioned by the Russian Ministry of Public Health in 1990. It has been known that DRSA improves rheological properties of the airways contents, decreases edema of bronchial and nasal mucosa, it has a bactericidal action, enhances functioning of alveolar macrophages. Other factors are comfortable temperature and humidity, hypo bacterial and allergen free air medium. The common cold patients’ condition was assessed by daily clinical observation, functional and citobacteriological tests. In all cases we registered cold clinical symptoms disappear faster than in control group. The improvement in clinical state was accompanied by positive dynamics of laboratory tests.

Chervinskaya A., Norvaisas G., Pluskiene L., Noreikiene D. Halotherapy for rehabilitation of asthma patients in Russia and Litvania // Eur. J of Allergy and Clin. Immunol. suppl.- V.51.- № 30.- 1996. – P.39.
Halotherapy (HT) is a drug-free method which simulates natural salt cave microclimate. The controlled air medium is created in ordinary room with special equipment. The main curative factor- is a dry sodium chloride aerosol with density of 0.5 to 5 mg/m3, particles size of 1-5 mkm and high negative charge. Sodium chloride aerosol improves rheological properties of the bronchial contents, decreases edema of bronchial mucosa, it has an bactericidal action, enhances functioning of alveolar macrophages. Other factors are comfortable temperature and humidity, hypobacterial and allergen free air medium.
The method of HT was sanctioned by the Ministry of Public Health in 1990. To study the efficiency of HT the data were collected from 15 Russian and 2 Lithuanian hospitals. We have evaluated the results of HT in 3,239 adults and children with various type of asthma (2,320 from Russia, 919 from Lithuania). The HT results were assessed by physicians on the basis of clinical symptoms and functional parameters dynamics. The course of HT (12-21 daily procedures) resulted in improvement of clinical state in 79% of asthma cases in adults and 89% in children. Patients showed positive dynamics of symptoms indicative of a better drain function of their airways. In the majority of cases the number and intensity of asthma attacks decreased, which allowed to cancel or reduce the dosage of medication. The improvement in clinical state was accompanied by positive dynamics of the lung function measurements. Long-term examination of patients (for one or more year) demonstrated the effect of HT on reduction in the frequency of exacerbations, reduction in chronic symptoms. Thus, HT can be used as a rehabilitation method in asthma management.

Chervinskaya A. Halotherapy for rehabilitation of pulmonary patients in Russia // The Europ. Respir. Journ.- V.10.- Suppl.25.-1997.- P.108.
Halotherapy (HT) is a mode of inhalation therapy with dry sodium chloride aerosol. The controlled air medium is created in an ordinary room with special equipment. The main curative factor- is a dry sodium chloride aerosol with particles size of 1-5 mkm and high negative charge. Density of aerosol depends on nosology, clinical features and FEV1 (0.5-1; 1-2; 3-5; 7-9 mg/m3). Other factors are comfortable temperature and humidity, hypo bacterial and allergen free air medium. The method of HT was sanctioned by the Russian Ministry of Public Health in 1990. To study the efficiency of HT the data were collected from 15 Russian hospitals (during 1991-1994 years). We have evaluated the results of HT in 4780 adults and children with various types of pulmonary diseases. HT course consisted of 10-20 daily procedures of 1 hour. The HT results were assessed by physicians on the basis of clinical symptoms, functional parameters and the dosage of medication dynamics with the standard questionnaires use. HT resulted in improvement of clinical state in 85% of mild and moderate asthma cases, 75% – of severe asthma cas es and 97% – of chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. Long-term examination of patients (for one or more year) demonstrated the effect of HT on reduction in the frequency of exacerbations, reduction in chronic symptoms. Thus, HT can be used as a rehabilitation method in pulmonary diseases management.

Chervinskaya AV, Kvetnaya AS, Cherniaev AL, Apul’tsina ID, Amelina EL, Molodtsova VP, Faustova ME. Effect of halotherapy on the host defense of the respiratory tract // Ter. Arkh. – 2002. – N.3. – P. 48-52. (Червинская А.В., Кветная А.С., Черняев А.Л., Апульцина И.Д., Амелина Е.Л., Молодцова В.П., Фаустова М.Е. Влияние галоаэрозольной терапии на защитные свойства респираторного тракта // Терапевт. арх. – 2002. – Т. 74, № 3. – С.48-52.)
Aim: Assessment of the efficacy of dry high-dispersive aerosol of sodium chloride-the main acting factor of haloaerosol therapy-on defense system of the respiratory tract.
Material and methods: 188 patients with respiratory disease and at risk of pulmonary pathology received course of haloaerosol therapy. 49 matched patients were given placebo. The effect of the treatment was assessed by clinical, endoscope picture, cytomorphological and bacteriological characteristics of the bronchoalveolar lavage, contamination activity of the microflora, activity of local humoral immunity in pharyngeal brush-biopsies and saliva, rheological indices of the sputum.
Results: Dry aerosol of sodium chloride demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in the respiratory tract, mucous regulatory action. It enhances drainage of the bronchi, activates alveolar macrophages, and improves biocenosis and local humoral immunity.
Conclusion: Haloaerosol therapy has positive effect on the host defense system, improves function of the respiratory tracts.

Chervinskaya A.V. Halotherapy of respiratory diseases. – Physiotherapy, balneology and rehabilitation. – 2003. – N6. – P.8-15. (Червинская А.В. Галотерапия болезней органов дыхания // Физиотерапия, бальнеология и реабилитация. – 2003. – № 6. – С. 8-15.)
In the scientific review the method of halotherapy simulating the parameters of salt spelaean clinic microclimate is described. The data with regard to the development of method, principles and advantages of halotherapy with a controlled microclimate of halochambers and haloinhalation therapy with portable haloinhalator are presented. Operative factors, pathophysiological foundations of curative action of this method, particularities of symptom dynamics within the treatment course and factors of clinical pattern change with different pathologies are analyzed. Data of clinical efficiency and substantiation of method application for rehabilitation treatment in patients with bronchopulmonary pathology as a method of primary and secondary prevention of respiratory diseases for ENT and skin diseases as well as in persons with concomitant cardiac pathology were presented.

Korolev A.V., Tarasenko M.P., Filatova L.M., Kopileva O.D., Blokhin B.M. Rehàbilitation of children who have frequent and long-lasting colds and application of halotherapy and breathing gymnastics for their treatment. – Kremlin Medicine. Clincal Herald.  – 2003. – N4. – P. 57-59. (Королев А.В., Тарасенко М.П., Филатова Л.М., Копылева О.Д., Блохин Б.М. Реабилитация часто и длительно болеющих детей с применением галотерапии и дыхательной гимнастики // Кремлевская медицина. – 2003. – №4. – С.57-59.)
Nowadays, development of techniques for treatment and rehabilitation of children who have frequent and long-lasting colds is quite actual 60 children with the discussed pathology have been examined and divided into three groups. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of rehabilitation has been done. In one group a rehabilitation course included curative physical trainings, massage, swimming pool; in the other group- the same plus halotherapy; in the third group – everything mentioned above plus breathing gymnastics. Efficiency was evaluated by the function of external breathing. Results have shown that halotherapy improves parameters of the external breathing. Additional use of special equipment for breathing gymnastics considerably improves the efficiency of the prescribed therapy.

Chervinskaya A. V., Kvetnaya A. S. Therapeutical effects of the dry sodium chloride aerosol on physiological properties of the respiratory mucosa // Pulmonology. Supplement abstract book: 3-rd Congress of European Region International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (IUATLD).– 2004. – Res. 322.
Dry fine sodium chloride aerosol (haloaerosol) is the main factor of Halotherapy. The goal was to study therapeutical effects of haloaerosol on the functional state of airway mucosa as well as on vitality and biological properties of microorganisms.
We used the standard S. pneumoniae strain as a test culture, which properties were studied in an experimental haloaerosol chamber. Properties of the respiratory tract epithelium were studied using a model of larynx-pharyngeal epithelium cells obtained from 10 healthy persons before and after haloaerosol inhalation. As the control substance, an aerosol of physiologic saline was used. Electrokinetic activity (EC) of epithelial cells and adhesive activity (adhesion index – AI) of S. pneumoniae were evaluated.
During stay of S. pneumoniae strain in haloaerosol chamber the colony-forming units (CFU) parameter was reduced with increasing of exposition period from 5 to 30 minutes (р<0.001). The survived microorganisms had decreased virulence and hyaluronidase activity.
After haloinhalations an increase of the EC of the epithelial cells in the healthy persons was observed (before – 27.0±4.7%, after – 47.0±1,6%; р<0.01) as well as a decrease of AI in comparison with the initial one (29.3±4.3% и 8.3±4.1% correspondingly, р<0.01). The study indicated the adhesive activity of S. pneumoniae was the least intensive at high level of EC cells (r=1.0).
As a result, it has been established that dry fine sodium chloride aerosol produces an inhibitory effect on growth and vital capability of microorganisms and changes their biological properties. Under the influence of haloaerosol an increase of the electrophysiological functional activity of the respiratory epithelial cells was observed as well as a rise of their colonizational resistance.